Canola Watch 2016 CCA/CCSC exam

December 9, 2016 - Issue 30

Here is the 2016 Canola Watch exam. CCAs or CCSCs who achieve a mark of 70% or better (at least 49 correct) on the following 70 questions will earn 6 credits.

Approved CCA CEUs:
Nutrient Management: 1
Soil & Water Management: 1
Integrated Pest Management: 2
Crop Management: 2

Approved CCSC credits:
Crop Management: 3.5
Integrated Pest Management: 3

Those who want credits for 2016 must write and pass in December. Those who want credits for 2017 can write in January 2017. Repeat attempts are allowed. Canola Watch will submit names for all who pass to the respective CCA or CCSC organizations.

When writing this self-study exam, note that all answers can be found in Canola Watch content from 2016. To work through Canola Watch articles for 2016, go to the “issue archive” under the Tools & Resources tab at Click the “+” symbol beside 2016 to find each month, then click the “+” by the month to find each issue. Or, for a quicker option, start with this URL for issue 1 of 2016: To go to the next issue, change the “1” to a “2” in the URL, then click refresh. And so on.

Click “Submit” when finished.

For questions or additional information on this exam, please contact Jay Whetter at 807-468-4006 or

We’ll start with these 6 housekeeping questions then move into the exam…

1. Your name (first and last)?

2. What is your CCA number? (Leave blank if not applicable)

3. What is your CCSC number? (Leave blank if not applicable)

4. Please enter your email address so we can reach you if required:

5. Please enter your phone number so we can reach you if required:

6. What region best describes your location?

7. This is the first of 70 questions that will count toward your score. An article called “More heated canola than usual” explains how heated canola, which results from spoilage in the bin, will greatly increase free fatty acids in canola oil. Free fatty acids reduce the stability and shelf-life a canola oil. Good quality new canola seeds will have about ___% of their fatty acids in the free form.

8. The Manitoba clubroot risk map is based primarily on clubroot spore levels in soil samples. Municipalities in red on the map have had at least one soil sample with spore levels above ________ per gram, which is considered the minimum spore population thresholds for clubroot gall formation in field conditions.

9. The best way to stop the continued advance of clubroot is for farmers outside the hot zone to use all the tools available, including resistant varieties, to keep the disease at bay. In a February article, Canola Watch compared this strategy to what?

10. In general, canola grown in fields with very low organic matter and dry conditions are most likely to show yield-reducing boron deficiency. (Though that doesn’t mean the will show it.) Unfortunately the current soil test for boron does not seem to be a reliable indicator of available boron. What is this test commonly called?

11. Fill in the blank: Boron was a focus of the 2015 Ultimate Canola Challenge (UCC). In 2016, UCC provided protocols for two on-farm trials – variety testing and ________________?

12. The article “Top 10 highlights from canoLAB 2016” includes a comment from Rigas Karamanos on the chronic under-application of phosphorus. According to his graph, what was the deficit in tonnes between applied phosphate and crop removal of phosphate in Western Canada in 2015?

13. The article “Top 10 highlights from canoLAB 2016” includes short video of a cutworm. What does the cutworm do to the canola seedling?

14. Though it works on cleavers, quinclorac is not currently a recommended control option in canola due to trade uncertainties. In an article on cleavers management, Canola Watch says to prioritize cleavers control in cereals. What is the key reason?

15. What is this statement describing: 25% is immediately available as N03-, 25% is NH4+ and the other 50% is CO(NH2)2.

16. Fill in the blank. The amount of nitrogen mineralized each year depends on moisture, temperature and the percentage of organic matter in the soil. Moist soils in Manitoba or Central Alberta, for example, could on occasion release close to ____ pounds of nitrogen per percentage point of soil organic matter.

17. Fill in the blank: The article “Why MRLs matter” includes a video. In the video, CCC president Patti Miller says: “One challenge is that products can be registered in Canada before the maximum residue limits are set in our export markets. That means effectively __________.”

18. An article describes situations where cover crops would most likely work in Canada. Of those situations, one included canola in the mix. What is it?

19. Fill in the blank: If considering a spray for weeds in early to mid April, make sure weeds are present and growing, that days are sunny and warm and overnight lows are ____°C or higher.

20. On the topic of spraying in April, promotion of “fully loaded” glyphosate is more of an American concept where glyphosate doesn’t have the full load of adjuvant. Pretty much all glyphosate sold in Canada comes with sufficient adjuvant. The same paragraph mentions the term “over-surfactanting”. What can result when too much surfactant is added?

21. In the photo, this person is pointing at an add-on end cap that reduces product accumulation at sprayer boom ends, which are common trap areas for sprayer contamination. What else does this particular end cap do?

Hypro end cap

22. Verticillium wilt of canola was renamed verticillium stripe. Why?

23. An article on what you need to know about phosphorus mentions soil test methods. Recommended soil tests are ______________ for Alberta and _____________ for Manitoba. Both tend to be used in Saskatchewan.

24. That same article talks about three “philosophies” when it comes to phosphate fertilizer rates. One, the “build and maintenance” approach of applying more than the crop needs on soils that are deficient, can work with P because it will remain in the soil if not used in the year of application. The article mentions one other immobile nutrient that suits this approach. What is it?

25. Fill in the blank: An article on what you need to know about sulphur (S) notes that soil with less than ___ lb./ac. of S in the top 6” is deficient. Canola grown on that field will often benefit from applied S — even if S levels at 6-24” depth are adequate.

26. Fill in the blank: An article on what you need to know about potassium (K) notes that sandier soils with low clay levels are most likely to be at or near deficiency levels. Alberta soil fertility expert Ross McKenzie estimates that about ________% of Prairie soils are K deficient, and overall soil K levels are in a slow decline.

27. When it comes to seeding date and frost risk, Canola Watch asks: Are you OK with a 50% probability of a killing frost? Or does 25% or 10% suit you better? At Lacombe, Alberta, 50% probability of a -3°C frost is around May 4. Half the time the last -3°C frost will occur after that date, and half before. At what date does that probability drop to 25%?

28. A May Canola Watch quiz asks: With a mix of perennial, winter annual and annual weeds growing in the field, how much time should you wait between spraying and seeding to let a pre-seed glyphosate application do its job? Assume weather is warm and sunny. (Hint: Take the quick quiz to find the answer.)

29. Products available for pre-seed applications ahead of canola are limited. The short list includes glyphosate and which other actives?

30. Fill in the blank: Hard water tends to reduce glyphosate performance, especially at higher water rates. When tank mixing with glyphosate and increasing water volume, it is important to consider water quality. If “total hardness” is below ____ ppm, the water source is good as is. For harder water, a conditioner such as spray-grade ammonium sulphate can be added to negate the effect of hard water cations.

31. Canola Watch wrote that seeding into dry soil in early May is preferable to waiting until after a rain. The article provided three reasons. Which is the first one?

32. A recent Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) study on canola seed size found that seed size effects on canola emergence, yield or seed quality were not significant. But it did find that plants growing from larger seed did what?

33. Wind trajectory maps for early May 2016 showed that winds from the southern States had arrived on the Prairies. Why does this matter to Canola Watch?

34. Of the common pathogens that cause seedling diseases in canola, which one tends to be worse when canola emergence is delayed due to cool, dry conditions?

35. Fill in the blank: To make the right flea beetle spray decision, consider the crop stage. Even if flea beetles are feeding, the economic threat is likely over after the _____ stage.

36. Cutworms and seedling diseases are fairly common causes for toppled or missing plants in the first few weeks after emergence. What does the article suggest is one way to distinguish cutworm feeding from disease damage?

37. If grassy weeds are providing early-season competition to canola, tank mixing the in-crop herbicide with a graminicide may be required. As for timing, if this particular later-emerging grassy weed species has germinated, it indicates that most annuals are popping.

38. An article on reseeding includes a graph showing that canola plants produce a lot more pods when plant density is low. This Saskatchewan research found that at 76 plants per square metre (around 7 per square foot), canola has just over 100 pods per plant. At 10 plants per square metre (one per square foot), what was the pod count per plant?

39. The herbicide application window varies slightly for each herbicide-tolerant canola system. The crop staging window of “2- to 7-leaf stage” is for which product?

40. The mixing order is unique when tank mixing clethodim with Liberty for improved grassy weed control. What is the mixing order?

41. In June, the CCC launched a new video “Harvest management & mitigating loss”. In the video, canola grower Darcy Sarafinchan says he’s heard of people losing how much canola out the back of the combine?

42. In the same video, what does canola grower Jack Moser suggest is an acceptable amount of loss out the back of the combine?

43. Fill in the blank with the same number: If applying a nitrogen top-up in season, Canola Watch says at least ____% of the target nitrogen rate is recommended. For example, if the goal is to apply 100 lb./ac. of actual nitrogen, the top dress should be at least ___ lb./ac.

44. Fill in the blank as it is written in Canola Watch: A recent blackleg study in western Canada found that fungicide applied at the 2- to 4-leaf stage of the crop can reduce blackleg severity and increase yield when __________________ and when the disease risk is moderate to high.

45. The article where you’ll find the answer to the previous question includes an embedded video: “Blackleg disease and resistance management.” The video explains one type of plant resistance that kills cells around an infection, stopping its spread. What is this resistance called?

46. Complete this line, as spoken in the same blackleg video: “The best tool for combating the disease is _____________.”

47. Fill in the blank: Cabbage seedpod weevil is a fairly common pest of canola in southern Alberta and southwest Saskatchewan. The goal with an insecticide spray is to stop adults from laying eggs in newly formed pods. If adult numbers are at economic threshold numbers, the time to spray them is ________.

48. An article called “When you see something new,” provides a few details on a rare micronutrient toxicity with symptoms that can be confused with sulphur deficiency, cold stress or herbicide damage. What is the micronutrient in question?

49. Fill in the blank: At canolaPALOOZA in Portage la Prairie, attendees learned that canola does not need mycorrhizae to source phosphorus, which means mycorrhizae levels drop considerably when canola is grown. Since mycorrhizae are essential to flax and very beneficial for corn, pea and lentils, growing these crops immediately after canola may result in lower yields. However mycorrhizae levels rebound very well with __________.

50. Customers can detect pesticide residues in parts per billion on a shipment. At canolaPALOOZA, the “Keep It Clean” station used a super-B truck to demonstrate what one part per billion looks like. One part per billion is equivalent to how many seeds in a super-B truck full of canola?

51. In a Canola School video on sweep netting, John Gavloski explains proper techniques. For lygus bug scouting in canola, where does he say to position the net while making sweeps?

52. What is the key factor in sclerotinia stem rot risk?

53. What caused this lesion?


54. An article on water-logging explains the process that can lead to the death of plants submerged too long. Fill in the blank for this excerpt: As root oxygen levels decline, energy generation from root stored sugars switches from aerobic respiration to less-efficient anaerobic processes. The cytoplasm of root cells becomes _________, which then causes cell death.

55. Fill in the blank: Research and data on canola yield loss due to waterlogging is minimal. Canadian studies on 2-leaf cereal crops found that one day of flooding caused 0% yield loss, but seven days of flooding caused _______% yield loss.

56. This worm was found on some canola fields in 2016, but Canola Watch reminded readers that it presents no economic risk to canola. What is it?


57. Fill in the blank: Aphids can cluster by the hundreds, but clusters are rarely on more than a few plants here and there. The nominal thresholds for turnip aphid or cabbage aphid in canola is when _____% of stems have aphid clusters.

58. Three thrips species will feed on canola in Canada but only one causes pod curling. What is its latin name?

59. With very low plant populations, the swath timing decision should be based entirely on what is happening on side branches. At 10 plants per square foot, about half the yield will come from main stem pods and half from branches. The ratio is 1:1. At 3 plants per square foot, what is the ratio of side-branch yield to main-stem yield?

60. What disease does this describe: “Disease symptoms in canola include leaf chlorosis, early ripening, stunting and … shredding of the stem tissue. Once the plant is fully ripe, the stem peels to reveal tiny black microsclerotia which resemble ground pepper in appearance.”

61. Fill in the blank: Containment tips for areas of a field known to have clubroot include: harvest them last, clean off tires before leaving these areas, avoid tillage and possibly grass them in until spore loads are reduced to a manageable level. If grassing them in for localized management, include _________.

62. Fill in the blank: Swath timing should always be based on the stage of plants that __________________.

63. Pre-harvest products are not necessary for straight combining canola, but they can help. Each product has a different recommended application timing. Which product is associated with this timing: “Apply at 80-90% seed colour change”?

64. The clubroot quiz asks: Tillage is the fastest way to spread clubroot within a field. If distributed evenly, just one gram of heavily infested soil (the volume of a Smartie) contains enough spores to seriously infest how much canola?

65. Fill in the blank: Canola seeds are much less likely than cereal seeds to sprout while in standing crop or windrows. Canola seeds won’t usually germinate unless seed moisture drops down to around ___% moisture, then gets wet again.

66. Fill in the blank: Under cool, wet weather, moisture loss in the seed will be less than one percentage point per day, and seed may even gain moisture with rain. On an average early fall day, moisture loss may be ____ percentage points per day.

67. In an article on conditioning canola, PAMI provides four quick reminders on the relationship between air temperature, grain temperature and drying. Fill in the blank for this one: Warm air and cool grain = ____________.

68. Fill in the blank: That same article notes that airflow rate is key for aeration and natural air drying of canola. An airflow rate of 0.1 to 0.2 cfm/bu can be enough for temperature conditioning, but to efficiently remove moisture from the seed you need ______ cfm/bu.

69. Which number fits both blanks? With a killing frost, immature seeds (moisture content higher than ___%) will be damaged. Seeds with less than ___% moisture will normally escape damage.

70. Fill in the blank: In late September, Canola Watch heard a report of tough canola starting to heat after ___ days in the bin.

71. Fill in the blank: At a soil compaction workshop, attendees learned that the first pass over a field causes ___% of the compaction.

72. Several freeze-thaw events are needed to break apart the soil properly, which means our winters – during which soil tends to freeze once and thaw once per year – have little effect on subsurface compaction. What is this freeze-thaw effect called?

73. Fill in the blank: The key strategy of fall fertilization is to store nitrogen over the winter in the ammonium form. Without strategies to achieve this, losses from a fall application can be ______% in moist and warm conditions.

74. For fall soil test results as close as possible to the situation next spring, the ideal time to take samples is when soil temperatures drop below 10°C and as close to freeze-up as possible. Why?

75. Fill in the blank: A late-season alert about canola heating in bins includes the grading tolerance for heated seed. No.1 canola can have no more than ___% heated seed?

76. The image below shows a clump of rotten heated canola that went into storage at 12% moisture. This specific image is the end result from a U of M study into what?


77. You have finished the exam! For our planning purposes, could you please note in this space how many hours it took to complete this exam?


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